MOREP medical chapter warning: benzene, a toxin emission inside cars

Open windows after you enter your car. In brief: According to research done by a U.C., the car dashboard, sofa, air freshener, will emit Benzene, a cancer causing toxin (carcinogen). In addition to causing cancer, it poisons your bones, causes anemia, and reduces white blood cells. Prolonged exposure will cause leukemia, increasing the risk of cancer. It may also cause miscarriage. Acceptable Benzene level indoors is 50 mg per square foot. A car parked indoors with the doors closed will contain 400 ? 800 mg of Benzene. If parked outdoors under the sun at a temperature above 15 degrees C. the Benzene level goes up to 2000 ? 4000 mg, 40 times the acceptable level. The people inside the car will inevitably inhale as excess amount of the toxin. It is recommended that you open the windows and door to give time for the interior to air before you enter. Benzene is a toxin that affects your kidney and liver, and is difficult for your body to expel.

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17 Responses to MOREP medical chapter warning: benzene, a toxin emission inside cars

  1. Revia says:

    SOS! My car was broken on ave. Should I call to service or police?

  2. Sisy says:

    and what do you think about energetic crisis in Russia?

  3. Samara says:

    wonderful thing 🙂

  4. Kalio says:

    interesting to read this post!

  5. Flame says:

    where I may find more data?

  6. MOREP Spokesman says:

    find more data in US environmental protection agency

  7. MOREP Spokesman says:

    @ Sisy: make an article about your target.
    @ Revia: ave is what?

  8. Light says:

    It was very useful!

  9. Belinda says:

    Good night, bloggers 🙂

  10. Olka says:

    Where I can to find blogs on this topic?

  11. What says:

    It’s hard to understand..

  12. Robot says:

    So cool!

  13. Nina says:

    Oh, it’s real, I know!

  14. Blues says:

    Real story 🙂

  15. Sun says:

    Super! I’ll make similar post in my blog

  16. Star says:

    such a nice story..

  17. MOREP Spokesman says:

    SEE REFERENCES AT THE END
    THIS IS A REFERENCE LINK
    http://www2.mst.dk/common/Udgivramme/Frame.asp?http://www2.mst.dk/Udgiv/publications/2006/87-7052-214-6/html/kap05_eng.htm

    Total health assessment of chemicals in indoor climate from various consumer products.

    5 Model calculations of potential indoor concentrations of selected volatile substances and evaluation of its health importance

    * 5.1 Assumptions used in the calculations
    o 5.1.1 Model room
    o 5.1.2 Consumer products
    o 5.1.3 Chemical substances
    o 5.1.4 Available data and assumptions for calculations
    o 5.1.5 Special conditions for the single products
    * 5.2 Modelling of indoor concentrations
    o 5.2.1 Phenol
    o 5.2.2 Formaldehyde
    o 5.2.3 Acetaldehyd
    o 5.2.4 Benzene
    o 5.2.5 Toluene
    o 5.2.6 Xylen(es)
    o 5.2.7 Styrene
    o 5.2.8 Limonene

    The purpose of this chapter is to estimate the total indoor concentrations of pollutants released from every consumer products that people may be exposed to various places in their homes, and make a preliminary health evaluation of such combined exposures.
    5.1 Assumptions used in the calculations

    The selection of which model rooms, which consumer products and which indoor chemicals should be included in the model calculation and health screening was made in consultation with DEPA and based on the developed substance-product matrix and the priority lists of substances and consumer products (see Chapter 4).
    5.1.1 Model room

    The model calculations are made for three types of rooms, where the exposure to VOC are supposed to be highest, thus a children’s room, a kitchen/family room and utility room/hall.
    5.1.1.1 Children’s room

    Infants, children and toddlers, who live in the children’s room, are the most susceptible to chemical exposures. They stay there for long time when they sleep, play or make school homework. Furthermore, this room is often smaller than other rooms in the dwelling, and many consumer products able to release volatile chemicals to the air may be present.

    The model room has a volume of 17.4 m³ corresponding to a typical children’s room in a well-insulated home. That size corresponds approximately to conditions in a standard room with a floor space of 7 m² and a ceiling height of 2.5 m, which normally is used to emission measurements. [5],[6] The air flow is defined as 0.5 h-1.

    The size of the room and the air flow correspond to the conditions used for scenario calculations in several of the DEPA reports.
    5.1.1.2 Kitchen/family room

    In a kitchen/family room various hobby activities take place besides the cooking activities, which all may generate air pollution. The volume of the selected room is set to 52.2 m³, corresponding to a room with a floor space of 21 m² (3 times the space of the children’s room) and a ceiling height of 2.5 m. The air flow is 0.5 h-1
    5.1.1.3 Utility room/hall

    In a utility room and in a hall many activities may pollute the air and it is those places dwellers and guests may carry dirt from outside. The volume of the room is set to 17.4 m³, corresponding to a floor space of 7 m² and a ceiling height of 2.5 m. The air flow is again 0.5 h-1
    5.1.2 Consumer products

    From DEPA’s consumer product reports 46 consumer products with probable relevance for the indoor climate were selected. The three model rooms were equipped or decorated with these products, as indicated in Table 5.1.

    Table 5.1: Consumer products with relevance for the indoor climate and included in DEPA reports. The figures indicate, how many specimen of a particular product are placed in the model rooms. ”+” indicates that the particular product is in place, e.g. in amounts corresponding to scenario calculations in a relevant report, or that a product is used in the particular model room. It is mentioned, if one of the eight selected substances is found in the particular product, either as content or degassed.

    Substance(s)
    among the 8 selected?

    Computer yes
    Printer Yes
    Monitor yes
    Playing console yes
    Household oven yes
    Hair dryer yes
    Pressing iron yes
    Decorative lamp yes
    Mobile phone – charger yes
    Mobile phone + charger yes
    TV apparatus yes
    Charger and transformer yes
    El panel yes
    El radiator yes
    Recharged batteries yes
    Vinyl floors no
    Carpet tiles no
    Vinyl wall paper no
    Candle lights no
    Floor carpets partly yes
    Floor wax no
    Dry-cleaned clothes no
    Textile fabrics curtain, bed linen curtain
    tablecloths curtain yes
    Air fresheners Yes
    Printed matters Yes
    Sealing yes
    Incense yes
    Tents for children Yes
    Products of exotic wood yes
    Impregnation agent no
    Shoe care agents Yes
    Beads Yes
    Cleaning agents Yes
    Moulding wax formed heated Yes
    Agents to metal Yes
    Hair styling no
    Christmas spray Yes
    Glues Yes
    Natural toys no
    Stain removers yes
    Spray paint yes
    Windows colours No
    Chloroprene products yes
    Textile colours no
    Glass- and porcelain colours no

    5.1.3 Chemical substances

    Model calculations are made for the eight selected volatile chemicals: Phenol, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, toluene, xylenes, styrene and limonene.

    Table 5.2 is an extract from the large substance-product-matrix on Excel sheet of those consumer products containing at least one out of eight selected chemicals. In the 33 products or product types the 8 substances are determined 107 times. In about 52 cases the substance is released continuously during a longer time, in about 34 cases the substance is released short-term, and in about 26 cases the substance is only determined as product content.

    Table 5.2: Products, which may release or contain the selected chemical substances. RX shows the number of the relevant report from DEPA. ”+” indicates if the substance is released continuously over longer time, and ”(+)” indicates that the substance is released over shorter time. Absence of both “+” or “(+)” indicates that no release of the substance is measured, and typically substances were only detected as contents in the product.
    Phenol Formal-
    dehyde Acetal-
    dehyde Benzene Toluene Xylenes Styrene Limonene
    Computer R66+ R66+ R66+ R66+ R66+
    Printer R66+ R66 (+)
    Monitor R32+ R32+ R32+ R32+ R32+ R32+ R32+
    Playing console R32+ R32+ R32+ R32(+) R32+
    Household oven R66(+) R66+ R66+ R66 (+) R66 (+) R66 (+) R66 (+)
    Hair dryer R66+ R66+ R66+ R66(+)
    Pressing iron R66+ R66+ R66(+) R66+
    Decorative lamp R66+ R66+ R66+ R66+ R66 (+)
    Mobile phone – charger R66 (+)
    Mobile phone + charger R66 (+) R66 (+) R66 (+) R66 (+)
    TV apparatus R66(+), R32+ R66(+), R32+ R66(+), R32+ R32+ R66(+), R32+ R66+, R32+ R66 (+)
    Charger and transformer R32+ R32+ R32+ R32+
    El panel R66+ R66 (+)
    El radiator R66+ R66 (+)
    Recharged batteries R66+ R66 (+) R66+ R66+ R66+ R66(+)
    Vinyl floors R15
    Carpet tiles R23
    Vinyl wall paper R30
    Candle lights R36+ R36+ R36+ R36+ R36+
    Floor carpets R38 R38
    Floor wax R39 R39 R39 R39 R39 R39
    Dry-cleaned clothes R46(+) R46(+) R46(+) R46(+) R46(+) R46(+)
    Textile fabrics R49+ R49+ R49+
    Air fresheners R52 R52 R52
    Printed matters R7(+) R7(+) R7(+)
    Sealing R8
    Incense R14(+)
    Tents for children R16
    Products of exotic wood R19 R19
    Impregnation agent R29 R29
    Shoe care agents R43(+)
    Beads R45 R45
    Cleaning agents R51 R51

    5.1.4 Available data and assumptions for calculations

    The review of DEPA’s reports on chemicals and consumer products showed that data in the various reports had different character and goal. In some reports the focus is on substance contents in the products, instead of release of substances to the air, which is more relevant dealing with indoor climate. Even for some of the reports dealing with products very relevant for the indoor climate, there is often insufficient data for calculating indoor concentrations. In addition, the results of the chemical analysis are not always specific and certain, because screening methods are often used and quantification of VOCs may be with unspecific toluene-equivalents. For specific details reference is made to the DEPA reports.

    Regards products, for which the release of substances to the air are measured and the source strength calculated, results are typically recalculated to potential indoor air concentrations in a standard room based on a simple model. Recalculations of results from climate chamber studies to concentrations in a standard room are typically based on the following standard conditions: It is assumed that the tested consumer products are used in a room with a volume of 17.4 m³ and an air flow of 0.5-h. This corresponds to a typically children’s room in a well-insulated family house. At a certain air flow the highest concentration of pollutants, anything else equal, will occur in a children’s room, because it is the smallest allowed room according to the building legislation.

    In order to carry out the scenario and model calculations in the framework of this project with the given number of substances and products in the three types of model rooms, it has been necessary to use a pragmatic procedure, where the available data is applied in as simple and direct a way as possible. This means that the available and performed scenario calculations in the DEPA reports are used as far as possible. In those cases, where scenario calculations from the reports are not corresponding to the conditions for the three scenarios above, some simple calculations were undertaken, where it is assumed that there is proportionality between variations for ventilation and room size. That means e.g. that if the room is three times as large as in the original calculation, then the concentration is one third. A calculation example is given in Section 5.2.1.

    Two types of source are distinguished between:

    1. Sources that release substances during shorter time, and
    2. Sources that release substances to the air continuously over long time.

    Short-term and continuous sources are defined by the measurements available most extensively in the DEPA reports for electronics, after7 hours (new products) and 9 days (used products), respectively.

    A “normal” worst-case situation is the basis of the calculations, and the focus is on indoor concentrations after 7 hours (new products) and 9 days (used products). The available indoor air concentrations for the particular products related to the three model rooms are listed in tables, and the concentrations are added in order to get the potential indoor air concentrations after 7 hours and 9 days, respectively.

    Contrary to the more steady pollution sources, sources of a more extreme and brief character also appear, e.g. spray painting. These sources are treated separately and are assumed to impact the concentration with a contribution that has to be added to the more continuous (new or used) sources in order to estimate the highest short-term concentration.

    For some products, e.g. TV apparatus and incense, measurements have been made on several different products. In such cases the product with the highest concentration is used in scenario calculations. For halogen lamp transformators an average figure of five transformators was used.
    5.1.5 Special conditions for the single products

    Regards printed matters the focus is that situation, in which the highest exposures are expected, that is watch and reading, when the consumer turns over the pages in the publication. In order to assess exposure in a standardized matter, theoretical exposure scenarios are defined. These shall illustrate worst-case but realistic exposures. The direct exposure of the consumers is supposed to take place, when the printed matter reaches the consumer after 2-15 days (3rd measurement period), and the consumer turns the pages. The potential concentrations are calculated in a model room of a volume of 10 m³ with an air flow of 0.5 times an hour. These results are used to calculate potential concentrations in the 2 smallest of the 3 scenarios. Thus a “worst-case” scenario was selected, in which pages are turned in three photogravure papers (e.g. sales catalogues) arriving at the same time, thus 498 gram photogravure and 677 gram offset, in total 1,175 kg printed matters in children’s room and in utility room/hall. The release of chemicals is considerably lower, when the pages are not turned.

    For incense there is used a consumption scenario, in which one incense pin is burned continuously in one hour in a room of a volume of 20 m³ and an air flow of 0.5 h-1. The combustion time of one pin varies between 25 -50 minutes. In order to estimate the indoor air levels several scenarios were put forward with the help of a box model and based on measured concentrations. It was chosen to use results from ventilated rooms instead of closed unventilated rooms, since it is more realistic. The room size was deliberately assumed small for the sake of a realistic worst-case with an air flow of 0.5 h-1.

    Regards the study of children’s tents, the product under investigation was placed in a climate chamber at standard test conditions. An evaluation is undertaken based on the highest measured concentration (not recalculated for a model scenario), which occurs 3 hours after unpacking of the product. If that concentration is a matter of concern, the rest of the analytical results measured after 3, 10 and 28 days after outpacking of the product are taken into account.

    For products of exotic wood the concentration of the substances was measured in a climate chamber and recalculated to what was relevant in indoor climate connections. The calculations were made for a standard room with a volume of 17.4 m³ and an air flow of 0.5 h-1. For all products a material load of 0.4 m²/m³ (0.4 m² material per m³ air) was used, which is believed to correspond to e.g. one table and 6 chairs or a floor area of 7 m². By using the same material load for all products it mostly will be worst-case calculations. For every identified substance in the climate chamber measurements, calculations were made for days 3, 10 and 28.

    For Christmas spray there was gathered information about product composition from safety data sheets and recipes, thus information exists about the content of the products. In order to evaluate the inhalation exposure of people, the report defines some standard conditions. These conditions are based on the various ways, the products are applied.

    Therefore, the calculations are made for two scenarios, namely use of a full spray can in a relatively short time period and secondly use of smaller doses. In the report a small dose is defined as 1/25 of a 150 ml can. When spray products are used, it may happen in different types of rooms. Since some of the products are not supposed to be used indoors, two different conditions, where the products can be used, are included: Garage or similar (3 m x 6 m x 2.5 m) with an air flow of 2 h-1, and indoors e.g. in a kitchen (3 m x 4 m x 2.5 m) with an air flow of 0.5 h-1. It is assumed that there is sprayed only once in a period and that all solvents evaporate instantly. The normal equation for decay is used to follow concentrations in air during time. In this way it is possible to get a feeling for, how the circumstances will be during various use conditions.

    The exposure calculations for spray paint include some imaginary situations, in which a consumer or his family could be exposed to contents in spray paint. The calculations are built on the following scenario: An adult spray paints an item in an enclosed space at room temperature. The content of the can is sprayed against the item. Parts of the contents hit the item but the rest is released to the air. During this process the user of the can has a great risk of inhale these gaseous or particle-bound pollutants. It is assumed that an applicant uses a simple disposable particle filter to protect mouth and nose, thus only inhalation of gasses and vapors are included in the calculations (and in the present project). Exposures by inhalation are calculated as scenarios for application and drying. The scenario for application is based on substance concentrations determined by chemical analysis, while the scenario for drying is based on the determined amounts of substances. For each of the focus chemicals the highest concentration/amount determined by the chemical analyses was selected to the exposure scenario. These scenarios will, therefore, reflect the realistic worst-case exposures to each focus chemical.

    For some products unusual or ”illegal” situations may develop, which may be hazardous to health, e.g. wrongly use of spray products indoors. These products are discussed separately as a problem but should be assessed with other products and other sources contributing the same chemical, e.g. building materials.

    If there is data from more than one product from the same product group, the highest release of a chemical is used in the calculations.
    5.2 Modelling of indoor concentrations

    In the following the results are presented of worst case model calculations of indoor concentrations, based on above mentioned preconditions, for each of the eight selected volatile substances at occurrence of each product, and when the products are present at the same time in the three model room scenarios.
    5.2.1 Phenol

    The calculated concentrations for phenol are shown in Table 5.3.

    An example of the calculations:

    The emissions measured in the DEPA reports are transformed to potential indoor air concentrations in a room of 17.4 m² and an air flow of 0.5 h-1. Regards phenol and pressing iron the concentrations are 1.4 µg/m³ (after 7 hrs) and 0.2 µg/m³ (after 9 days) in Children’s room and Utility room/hall but only a third in the Kitchen/family room.

    Table 5.3: The concentration of phenol in a model room with one or more products.
    Product Model room
    Children’s room Kitchen/family room
    Utility room/hall
    New products Used products New products Used products New products Used products
    µg/m³ µg/m³ µg/m³ µg/m³ µg/m³ µg/m³
    Computer 16.1 16.1
    Monitor, obs uncertain data 22.6 18.7
    Playing console 1.5 0.5
    Household oven 0.3 <0.3
    Pressing iron 0.5 0.1 1.4 0.2
    TV apparatus 3.4 3.0 1.1 1.0
    Chargers and transformers, obs 0.0 4.2 0.0 1.4 0.0 4.2
    Tents for children X X X X
    Chloroprene products X X
    Concentration in model room 43.6 42.5 1.9 2.5 1.4 4.4

    Note: For monitor: Phenol + trimethylbenzene, Tenax-tubes are somewhat oversaturated. Given concentrations are minimum concentrations. The error is in all cases less than a factor 2. For Chargers and transformers: Tenax-tubes are somewhat oversaturated, because of unexpected high emissions, which are seen from the analytical results from the tubes with the two different sampling volumes. Reported concentrations are minimum concentrations. An “X” means here and in the following tables that special conditions are present and discussed below the table.

    As seen in Table 5.3, the highest concentrations of phenol are in the children’s room, where the concentration is about 43 µg/m³ for both new and used products.

    To this shall be added a potential contribution of 18.6 µg/m³ from tents for children and chloroprene products, for which the following can be stated:

    * Regards tents for children the highest concentration of phenol was 18 µg/m³ (in climate chamber) after three hours. This value decreased to 15 µg/m³ after three days and to 7 µg/m³ after 10 days.

    * Regards chloroprene products, phenol was determined in gloves of chloroprene in a concentration of 0.9 µg/gram. No information was available about release of phenol to the air, thus it is necessary to make some assumptions for estimating a potential worst-case concentration of phenol in the air. It is assumed that the gloves have a weight/volume 1/20 of the waders releasing most toluene, see below. A simple calculation based on the calculations for waders and toluene (0.12 µg/g and a total content of toluene of 0.029 mg) and with this assumption the total amount of phenol in a pair of gloves: 0.9/0.12 x 0.029 mg/20 = 0.011 mg. If it is assumed that this amount evaporates momentarily (unrealistic worst-case) in a hall with a volume of 17.4 m³ it would generate a concentration of 0.63 µg/m³.

    It should naturally be emphasized that other sources exist than the mentioned.
    5.2.1.1 Health assessment

    Above it is mentioned that the maximal worst-case phenol exposure, which is in a children’s room, is calculated to 62 µg/m³. This concentration is much lower than an indoor limit value of 400 µg/m³ based on odour recognition (see Appendix B).

    If a child weighing 10 kg inhales the worst-case concentration of 62 µg/m³ the whole day with an inhalation rate of 0.6 m³/time, it receives a total dose of about 900 µg/day or 90 µg/kg bw/day; or a little below the USEPA Reference Dose (RfD) for phenol of 100 µg/kg bw/day developed with a built-in safety factor. This shows that in a children’s room, where every single pollution source alone counts insignificantly, the total chemical intake can in worst case approach or may be exceed the highest tolerable for a child.
    5.2.2 Formaldehyde

    The calculated concentrations of formaldehyde are shown in Table 5.4.

    Table 5.4: The concentration of formaldehyde in a model room with one or more products.
    Products Model room
    Children’s room Kitchen/family room Utility room/hall
    New products Used products New products Used products New products Used products
    µg/m³ µg/m³ µg/m³ µg/m³ µg/m³ µg/m³
    Computer 3.3 3.7
    Printer 0.4 0.9
    Monitor 3.0 2.8
    Playing console 0.8 0.5
    Household oven 6.0 8.0
    Hair dryer 0.5 0.7
    Pressing iron 1.1 0.0 3.3 0.0
    Decorative lamp 19.5 4.9
    Mobile phone with charger <0.1 <0.1 <0.03 <0.03 <0.1 10 times the occupational health limit value.

    The Reference Dose (RfD) for xylenes is 200 µg/kg bw/day. Exposure to 100 µg/m³ for 6 hours results in a child intake of xylenes at 3,600 µg/day or 360 µg/kg bw/day. That means that alone the electronics cause too high exposures compared to RfD. A further 10-100 times increased exposure, which can be obtained from other sources, might be unacceptable.
    5.2.7 Styrene

    The calculated concentrations for styrene are shown in Table 5.9.

    Table 5.9 Concentration of styrene in a model room with one or more products.
    Products Model room
    Children’s room Kitchen/family room Utility room/hall
    New products Used products New products Used products New products Used products
    µg/m³ µg/m³ µg/m³ µg/m³ µg/m³ µg/m³
    Computer 2.5 1.8
    Monitor, obs 14.8 4.1
    Playing console 1.8 0.2
    Household oven 0.3 <0.3
    Hair dryer <0.3 0.2
    Decorative lamp 0.3 <0.2
    TV apparatus, obs 1.5 1.4 0.5 0.5
    Recharged batteries 0.8 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.8 0.2
    Incense X X X X X X
    Tents for children X X X X
    Beads X X X obs
    Concentration in model room 21.7 7.7 1.1 0.5 0.8 0.4

    Note: For monitor and TV apparatus the concentrations are measured combined for a mixture of o-xylene and styrene. Reported concentrations are minimum concentrations. The total values are given (worst case). An “X” means here and in the following tables that special conditions are present and discussed below the table.

    As seen in Table 5.9 the highest concentrations of styrene are found in children’s room with concentrations of about 22 µg/m³ for new products and about 8 µg/m³ for used products.

    To this may be added potential contribution of up to 772 µg/m³ from incense, tents for children and beads, for which the following estimate can be given:

    * For incense the highest concentration of styrene is calculated to 34 µg/m³ after one hour continuous combustion of a pin of incense in a room with a volume of 20 m³ and an air flow of 0.5 h-1(based on a box model).

    * For tents to children the highest concentration of styrene is 18 µg/m³ after three hours in climate chamber. Styrene is not treated as a potentially problematic substance.

    * For beads the figures are uncertain. Bearing that in mind, there may be generated concentrations of styrene of 720 µg/m³. Such concentration will only be present as long bead plates are ironed, and it will decrease as soon as the activity ceases, because then it will be blended with the room air.

    It should be underlined that other sources, than these mentioned, may occur.
    5.2.7.1 Health assessment

    The highest concentrations of styrene were calculated to be in a children’s room with a concentration of about 22 µg/m³ for new electronics and about 8 µg/m³ for used products. In addition, potential contributions of up to about 772 µg/m³ from incense, tents for children, and beads. The latter value is very close to the WHO air quality guideline value of 800 µg/m³ but below the Reference concentration (RfC) of 1 mg/m³ based on effects on the central nervous system.

    The Reference dose (RfD) is 200 µg/kg bw/day, which is a little larger than a Dutch TDI of 120 µg/kg lgv/day. At exposure to a concentration of 20 µg/m³ in 6 hours/day, the child intake of styrene is about 72 µg/day or 7 µg/kg bw/day. This is far below any risk level and without health effects. However, in the worst-case scenario for children’s room with incense etc., there will be a 20% excess of RfD.
    5.2.8 Limonene

    The calculated concentrations of limonene are shown in Table 5.10.

    Table 5.10 Concentrations of limonene in a model room with one or more products
    Products Model room
    Children’s room Kitchen/family room Utility room/hall
    New products Used products New products Used products New products Used products
    µg/m³ µg/m³ µg/m³ µg/m³ µg/m³ µg/m³
    Printer, obs 3.1 <0.5
    Household oven 1.0 <0.3
    Hair dryer 0.6 <0.4
    TV apparatus 1.1 <0.3 0.4 <0.1
    Recharged batteries 0.1 <0.1 0.0 <0.03 0.1 <0.1
    Air fresheners content content content content
    Printed matters X X X X X X
    Shoe care agents content content content content
    Cleaning agents content Content content content content content
    Stain removers X X X X
    Concentration in model room 4.3 0.0 1.4 0.0 0.7 0.0

    Note: For printer measured as toluene equivalents. Reported concentrations are minimum concentrations. An “X” means here and in the following tables that special conditions are present and discussed below the table.

    As seen in Table 5.10 the highest concentrations of limonene are found in children’s room, where the concentration is about 4 µg/m³ for new products.

    To this may be added possible contributions of up to 341 µg/m³ from printed matters and incense, among others, for which the following may be estimated:

    * For printed matters the concentrations of limonene are calculated from a scenario illustrating the worst cases but realistic exposures, when a person turns the pages of printed matters. The potential concentrations are calculated in a model room of a volume of 10 m³ and an air flow of 0.5 h-1. If the results from here are converted to scenarios for children’s room and utility room/hall the potential indoor concentration of limonene 16 µg/m³.

    * For stain removers the maximum content of limonene in a liquid product is determined to 0.44%. A worst-case calculation has been made, where a person uses a stain remover in a spray can which is used once a week. Every time the person stayed 5 minutes inside the room, where the application was made. Investigations with three different types of spray cans without propellant but with a hand pump gave an average consumption of 1.3 g at application on a spot of average size. The model room, in which the stain removal takes place, has a volume of 15 m³ without ventilation. It is assumed that after the injection a complete mixing of substances in the air is seen. The concentration in a person’s inhalations zone may be calculated by an equation. This gave a concentration of limonene of 325 µg/m³.

    * For air fresheners, shoe care agents, and cleaning agents, limonene was found as constituent without emission data.

    It should be remembered that other sources than those mentioned may be present. Average concentrations for limonene of 5-15 µg/m³ in indoor air are reported in some studies but concentrations may reach several hundreds µg/m³ during or just after use of various consumer products.[7],[8],[9],[10]
    5.2.8.1 Health assessment

    The highest concentrations of limonene are in children’s room, where the concentration is about 4 µg/m³ for new electronics. To this may be added possible contribution of up to about 341 µg/m³ from printed matters and incense among others. Exposure to limonene may also occur by storage and consuming of citrus fruits.

    Limonene has a low toxicity and the tolerable daily intake (TDI) is 100 µg/kg bw/day. If a child is exposed to a concentration of 4 µg/m³ for 6 hours the intake will be 15 µg/day or 1.5 µg/kg bw/day. Such an intake is completely without health concerns to a normal child. In a worst case scenario, however, the intake may approach the TDI. In case of allergy or intolerance even small amounts may have importance; however, this will not be a specific indoor problem in relation to limonene.

    THIS IS A REFERENCE LINK
    http://www2.mst.dk/common/Udgivramme/Frame.asp?http://www2.mst.dk/Udgiv/publications/2006/87-7052-214-6/html/kap05_eng.htm

    Footnote

    [5] Anvisning for bestemmelse og vurdering af afgasning fra byggevarer. DS/INF 90. Dansk Standard, København, 1994.

    [6] NT Building Materials 358: Emission of Volatile Compounds, Chamber Method. Espoo, Finland: Nordtest, 1990.

    [7] Seifert B, Mailahn W, Schulz C, Ullrich D. Seasonal variation of concentrations of volatile organic compounds in selected German homes. Environ Int 1989;15:397-408.

    [8]Fellin P, Otson R. Assessment of the influence of climatic factors on concentration levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Canadian homes. Atmospheric Environment 1994;28 (22):3581-3586.

    [9] Wainman T, Zhang J, Weschler CJ, Lioy P. Ozone and limonene in indoor air: a source of submicron particle exposure. Environ Health Perspec 2000;108 (12):1139-1145.

    [10]Singer BC, Destaillats H, Hodgson AT, Nazaroff WW. Cleaning Products and Air Fresheners: Emissions and Resulting Concentrations of Glycol Ethers and Terpenoids. Submitted for publication, 2005.